Legionary fortress and civil town
Oescus (Ulpia Oescus) is located near the village of Gigen, Pleven region, close to the mouth of the Iskar river. It was one of the largest towns on the Lower Danube. Oescus was established in AD 106-109. The remnants of the Early Roman legionary camp, founded in the first decade of the 1st century AD, lie below the remains of the Roman colony. The camp was fortified with stone-and-earth wall during Vespasian’s reign. In the 270s Fifth Macedonian Legion returned to Oescus again and then was built the fortification system of Oescus II, where the Late Roman legionary headquarters was disposed. Oescus existed until the end of the 6th century AD.